Resources for Further Research & Education
150 Acts of Reconciliation for the Last 150 Days of Canada's 150
Focus:  Educational resource site for all Canadians
Summary:  This site lists 150 acts of reconciliation.  Many of these are small, everyday acts that average Canadians can undertake, but others are more provocative that encourage people to think about Indigenous-settler relationships in new ways. Give this list a read, and note the numerous links to many of the various topics and issues indicated in many of the acts. You can spend quite awhile educating yourself here- this is a tremendous resource!
Canada's First Peoples
Focus: This site has been designed for anyone interested in learning more about the First Peoples of Canada, and includes the following modules:
  • Canada's First Peoples:  An Overview
  • Contact, Trade and Alliances Between First Nations and Europeans
  • Treaties and Change
  • The Metis and the Northwest Rebellion
Treaties and Relations with Canada's Indigenous Peoples

Source: Canada in the Making

Focus: This site has been designed for students and teachers of Canadian studies, history and law, but will be useful to researchers and anyone else interested in Canada's past.
Summary: Since the time of European First Contact, the course of Aboriginal history in Canada has been deeply altered by relations with Europeans and the laws they imposed on Aboriginals - laws like the Indian Act. Furthermore, major and minor treaties played a significant and important role in charting the course of European-Aboriginal relations within the country.  It includes narratives exploring Canada's constitutional history, treaties and relations with Canada's Indigenous peoples and pioneers and immigrants.  The Canada in the Making site looks at these treaties and laws, and the events that preceded and followed these changes.
1492 - 1779: From First Contact to the Peace and Friendship Treaties
1763 - 1791: Royal Proclamation (1763) and Québec Act (1774)
1764 - 1836: Pre-Confederation Treaties I
1811 - 1867: Pre-Confederation Treaties II
1867 - 1870: British North America Act, 1867 and Sale of Selkirk Treaty Lands (1869)
1871 - 1875: First Five Numbered Treaties
1876 - 1877: The Indian Act, 1876 and Numbered Treaties Six and Seven
1878 - 1898: Deculturation
1899 - 1922: Last of the Numbered Treaties
1923 - 1950: Williams Treaties and Land Transfer Agreements
1951 - 1981: Aboriginal Rights Movement
1982 - 2003: Constitutional Reforms and Crises
Secondary Education:

Grade 11/12 Indian Residential Schools and Reconciliation
Source: First Nations Education Steering Committee (FNESC)

Focus: Grade 11/12

Summary: These Indian Residential Schools learning resources are designed to use an inquiry approach to provide students in a number of Grade 11 and 12 courses with an understanding of the history of the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada.

They are intended for use for instruction of students from all cultural backgrounds, not just Aboriginal students.

The learning activities are based on the use of primary source materials. They allow for the application of both a First Peoples Pedagogy and the changing BC Curriculum.
Source: Northwest Territories Education, Culture and Development
Focus: Teachers and Grade 10 students
Summary: Welcome to the Canadian residential schools module developed for use in Nunavut, the NWT, and beyond.
It is our hope that the information and activities in this module will give teachers and students the resources they need to examine the histories, memories, and impacts of the Canadian residential school system. Generations of Aboriginal peoples have been impacted by this system, and all Canadians have a part to play in learning about the past and in continuing to build more respectful relationships in the present and future.
The first section of this Teacher’s Guide includes background and overview information intended for teachers only. This section was developed to help teachers familiarize themselves with the Canadian and northern contexts for residential schools, which in some cases are similar and in other cases, somewhat different. Students will access this background information through the activities themselves.
The activities in this book were prepared and reviewed by educators, subject specialists, former residential school students, and leaders from both the NWT and Nunavut to ensure that they meet the needs of both students and teachers of grade 10. The teachers who participated in the pilot and those who used the first edition made many recommendations about how to prepare to deliver this module.
This resource consists of twelve activities, each of which helps students examine and develop an understanding of aspects of the history and legacy of the residential school system. It also helps students participate in the journey towards reconciliation.

Source: Government of Saskatchewan

Focus: Secondary Students
Summary: This section will provide a variety of links that are video, print-based, or web-based all in support of Treaty Education
These Treaty Guides provide a brief, easy to understand summary of each treaty along with available additional resources, including historical interpretations, transcripts, printer-friendly maps and photographs of the people who participated in the development or signing of these historical treaties. In addition, text from treaties as far back as the mid 1700's to the early 1900's is formatted and clearly typed for easy reading and printing.
Early Childhood
Source: Canada’s Public Policy Forum / Forum Des Politiques Publiques du Canada Halifax Roundtable Summary 2015
Summary: In the summer of 2014, Canada’s Public Policy Forum launched Building Leaders: Early Childhood Development in Indigenous Communities, a national initiative to advance early childhood development (ECD) in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities. As part of this project, the Forum is convening a series of multi-sector round tables across the country to explore opportunities for enhancing the outcomes of ECD programs in Indigenous communities.
On January 22, 2015, the Forum convened a round table in Halifax. Hosted by Dalhousie University, this invitation-only event brought together a small group of ECD practitioners, policymakers, academics, and community leaders to share best practices, key challenges, and new avenues for greater impact.
Community Engagement:
Source: KAIROS

Focus: All Canadian citizens
Summary: A teaching tool to share the historic and contemporary relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians.  The tool can be adapted to different age groups.  An educator's resource kit is available from KAIROS.
Source: First Nations and Indigenous Studies, University of British Columbia
Focus: Senior secondary and Post-secondary students

Summary: An information resource on key topics relating to the histories, politics, and cultures of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada. This website was developed to support students in their studies, and to provide instructors, researchers and the broader public with a place to begin exploring topics that relate to Aboriginal peoples, cultures, and histories. Indigenous Foundations was developed by the First Nations Studies Program at the University of British Columbia, located on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Musqueam people.       
Source: Lise Chabot

Focus: Parents and Community Workers
Summary: Parental involvement in education is not a concept that is distinct to First Nations people in North America nor is it a struggle that only First Nations people embark upon. What distinguishes the First Nations situation from others is the culture, languages and world view that they bring to the equation – none of which exist anywhere else in the world – and the number of stakeholders – departments, ministries, school boards - that must be cajoled to realize First Nations’ goals. These groups have posed and will continue to pose the biggest challenge to accomplishing a meaningful degree of parental and community involvement in First Nations education. At the same time, however, given the difficult realities these same groups are now encountering in the realm of education, they may also prove to be our greatest allies.
Multi Media
Source: Virtual Museum of Canada
Focus: Secondary Students
Summary: Take a journey to the Arctic, one of the richest and most spectacular places on earth, with students from Students on Ice and preeminent scientists from the Canadian Museum of Nature.
Source: Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian

Focus: Intermediate/Senior students

Summary: Travel to each region on the map, and complete the activity. You will gain specific knowledge about a Native nation, its environment, and an object. For each activity you complete, you will earn a badge that proves your knowledge. Collect all ten badges to become an Infinity of Nations Culture Quest Leader.
Wawahte Educational Documentary
Source: Produced by Tyton Sound from the Wawahte Audio Book

Focus: Secondary & post-secondary students, adults

Summary: Wawahte tells the story of Canada's Indian Residential Schools from the perspective of three of its survivors.  The film aims to show Canadians the plight of those who made it through the Residential School system, as well as the impact the system had, and continues to have, on the indigenous peoples of Canada. View the film at
Related Links
Source: Office of Native Education Washington State

Focus: Elementary/Secondary students

Summary: This site houses resources, materials, lessons, and entire units to support the teaching of tribal sovereignty, tribal history, and current tribal issues (within the context of OSPI recommended units for Washington and US history in the elementary and middle school levels and US history and Contemporary World Issues in the high school level). Select the curriculum menu item and select your grade level to connect yourself to a wealth of information, videos, and resources surrounding what was and is happening in Indian country.